返回列表 回复 发帖

法律英语术语之“遵守”的表达

遵纪守法是每个公民应尽的义务。法律英语学习者也应该了解“遵守法律”的英语表达。《大学法律英语教学大纲》(2014,P149)附录三“法律英语功能意念表”中使用了abide by/ comply with/conform to/ observe/ in compliance with几个术语,都有“遵守、符合”之意,用法又有什么区别呢?编者通过查阅法律英语词典,对比例句,简单归纳如下,不当之处,敬请斧正。

01  Abide by
     “to obey (with/by) to act in accordance with or in conformity to” (abide by the rules) (Black’s Law Dictionary). PHRASAL VERB If you abide by a law, agreement, or decision, you do what it says you should do. 例如:They have got to abide by the rules. 他们必须遵守规定(《柯林斯英汉双解大词典》)。Abide by,意为“遵守”,作为短语动词,其主语通常是人。例如:
1) Above all, everyone must abide by the law. 首要的是,每个人都必须遵守法律。
2) That commitment is at the core of the Treaty, and it must be kept for all who fully abide by. 这个义务是条约的核心所在,而且所有完全遵守条约的国家必须保持下去。
3) Commissioned persons shall abide by the various provisions on taxpayers in this chapter. 接受委托的人应当遵守本章对纳税义务人的各项规定。
4) Technology companies say they have no choice but to abide by local laws and restrictions. 这些科技公司说,它们别无选择,只能遵守当地法律和相关约束性规定。
5) Pursuant to the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Contract law of the People’s Republic of China and other relevant laws and regulations, Party A, Party B and Party C, through friendly consultation, have reached the following agreement based on the principle of equality and mutual benefit with respect to the nominee shareholding of Party C’s shares by Party B for the benefit of Party A, and are mutually bound to abide by the same. 甲乙丙三方本着平等互利的原则,根据《中华人民共和国公司法》、《中华人民共和国合同法》等相关法律、法规,经友好协商,就甲方委托乙方代为持有甲方在丙方股份事宜达成协议如下,以兹共守。

02  Comply with
       “遵守、照做;遵从、依从”,短语动词,其主语可以是人、也可以是物。例如:
1) If we reinforce the traffic security education and more people comply with traffic regulations, I believe one day traffic accidents can be avoided. 如果我们加强交通安全教育,更多的人遵守交通规则,我相信总有一天交通事故是可以避免的。
2) If you do not comply with these rules, the transaction strategy will not work.如果不遵守这些法则的话,事务策略将不能正常工作。
3) Candidates who opt to use these funds must comply with spending limits. 选择利用这类资金的候选人必须遵守开销限度。
4) The advertisement does not comply with the intermediate credit advertisement requirements. 该广告不符合中间信贷广告的要求。
5) Where the goods replaced again still fail to comply with the standards for the delivery for the parties, Party A is entitled to return the goods, and all the resulting losses shall be borne by Party B. 如再次更换货物仍然不符合双方交付标准,甲方有权退货,由此造成的所有损失由乙方承担。

03  conform to
      “遵守、依照;符合、遵照”,其主语可以是人,也可以是物。另外,它除了有“遵守、符合”之意,还有“某种行为与......保持一致”的意思。例如:
1) We must conform to the laws of the country. 我们必须遵守国家的法律。
2)All students must conform to the rules. 所有学生都必须遵守校规校纪。
3)These must be in the best interest of the enterprise and also conform to applicable laws and regulations. 这些计划必须是为了企业利益最大化,并且符合需要遵从的法律及规章制度。
4) The social contract need not to conform to legal conventions. 社会契约不需要符合法律惯例。
5) All parts of superstructure which do not conform to the economic base must be transformed. 一切不适应经济基础的上层建筑都要改革。

04  observe
      “遵守(法律)等;观察,监视”。后面常接 “rule, limit, public holiday” 等词语。
“Observe” stresses respectful adherence, as to law or tradition, often in the form of compliance with prescribed rites. “Observe” 强调尊敬性的遵从,如对于法律或传统,常常以遵守规定的礼仪仪式为形式。例如:
1) Communication among different cultures should all observe and maintain politeness principles. However, due to different cultures and values, people are confined to adopting different politeness strategies in the communication. 礼貌是不同文化背景的人都应该遵守和维护的行为准则,但不同的文化和价值观制约人们在交际中使用不同的礼貌策略。
2) Motorists should observe the speed limit. 汽车司机应该遵守速度限制。
3)Parking is often very limited, please observe local regulations. 停车通常很有限,请遵守当地规定。
4) The federal government observes holidays per year providing vacation sick days. 联邦政府每年都放假,并提供病假。
5) Not every state in the United States observe daylight saving. 美国并非每个州都实行夏令时。

05  in compliance with
      “遵守、服从”;作为介词短语,其后常接表示“规章制度、法律法规、命令要求”等名词。例如:
1)The workers were not in full compliance with the rules. 工人们没有完全按制度办事。
2)In compliance with a court order, the company has ceased operations. 公司按照法庭要求停止运行。
3)The will is not executed in compliance with formalities. 遗嘱没有按照手续执行。
4)In compliance with your request, we send you our brochures together with the latest pricelist for your reference. 按照贵方的要求,现寄去我们产品宣传手册和最新价格表供贵公司参考。
5)The reality in China is that most firms just meet the first one----in compliance with existing laws, and even this isn’t easy for them. 现实是,在中国大多数企业只看到了第一条——只遵守存在的法律,甚至这对他们来说都不太容易。

06  obey
      另外,“obey”作为最普通的用语,有“服从(权威)、遵守(法律或规定)” 之意,但《大纲》里却没有列举。例如:
1) The duke’s command was almost literally obeyed. 公爵的命令几乎完全得到了服从。
2)The minor did not obey a court order. 未成年人不服从法院的命令。
3)If everyone obeys the rules of the road, safety is much improved. 如果人人遵守交通法规,安全方面就会大有改观。
4)Failure to obey the law can lead to a large fine. 违反该法律会被处以巨额罚款。

作者简介:
胡朝丽:聊城大学外国语学院副教授,英语语言学博士,硕士研究生导师。
研究领域:基础英语教学、法律英语教学和外语教师教育。

阅读原文请关注微信公众号“法律英语教学与测试”
返回列表